Highly efficient application of major fertilizers

1. Urea: It is a neutral, available fertilizer that is applied to the soil through soil microorganisms for 3 to 4 days before being converted into ammonium carbonate or ammonium bicarbonate before they can be absorbed by crops. Therefore, as the base fertilizer, it is necessary to apply the cover soil deeply. It should be applied 4 to 5 days earlier than ammonium bicarbonate and ammonium sulfate. After the application, the irrigation should be separated by 4 to 6 days. Otherwise, the urea can easily be lost with water. Urea should not be directly used as a seed fertilizer because high concentrations of urea are in direct contact with seeds and often affect seed germination. Other periods, especially at the seedling stage, should not be excessive or too concentrated.

2. Ammonium bicarbonate: its chemical nature is unstable, volatile, under the same conditions, the general deep application and cover soil than the ground application rate of 20 to 30% higher than the shallow application rate of 10 to 15%. When using ammonium bicarbonate as basal fertilizer and top dressing, when applying basal fertilizer, apply 15 to 20 centimeters deep to cover soil to prevent evaporation loss. Use as much as possible at a temperature lower than 20°C during the season. Try to keep the morning and evening temperatures low during the day. When applied, to avoid volatile decomposition, prevent burning of crop leaves, improve fertilizer utilization.

3, diammonium phosphate: is a high concentration of available fertilizer, particularly suitable for ammonium ammonium phosphorus demand crops, should be used as a base fertilizer, such as top dressing, should be applied early and deep after 10 cm cover soil, can not be too close to the crop So as not to burn the crop. When used as a fertilizer, it cannot be in direct contact with the seeds. Do not use diammonium phosphate with water. Do not mix with alkaline fertilizers such as grass ash and lime to prevent nitrogen from evaporating and reducing the effectiveness of phosphorus.

4. Ammonium nitrate: easily soluble in water, easy to absorb moisture and agglomerate, and prone to thermal decomposition, the product is generally made into granular. After being applied to the soil, it quickly decomposes into ammonium and nitrate ions, which can be absorbed by the soil, and nitrate ions are easily lost with water. Therefore, it is not suitable for top dressing and paddy field application.

5. Superphosphate: It is an acidic fast-dissolving fertilizer that can be applied to neutral or calcareous soils. It can be used as base fertilizer, topdressing fertilizer and extra-root fertilizer. Can not be mixed with alkaline fertilizers to prevent acid-base neutralization and reduce fertilizer efficiency. Mainly used in soils deficient in phosphorus, concentrated application or mixed with organic fertilizers can increase utilization. Can not be directly used for seed fertilizer, because the free acid contained in it will produce seedlings and seedlings. Foliar spraying concentration is 1 to 2%.

6. Calcium, Magnesium and Phosphate Fertilizer: Calcium, Magnesium Phosphate Fertilizer is a kind of multi-element fertilizer mainly containing phosphorus, which contains calcium, magnesium, silicon and other ingredients. It is insoluble in alkaline fertilizer, suitable for acidic soils, and its fertilizer efficiency is slow. Basal fertilizer is better. It cannot be mixed with superphosphate and nitrogen fertilizers, but it can be applied in combination with the application of acidic fertilizers. It is effective in acidic soils that lack silicon, calcium and magnesium. Not suitable for use in neutral and alkaline soils. The absorption and utilization rate of the crops in the current season after the application of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate fertilizers is very low. Therefore, it is recommended to apply them every year in plots with more phosphorus fertilizers.

7. Potassium chloride: Potassium chloride not only has the effect of promoting the formation of plant proteins and carbohydrates, enhancing lodging resistance, improving and improving crop quality, but also balancing the effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and other nutrient elements in plants. It can be used as base fertilizer and topdressing fertilizer, but it should not be applied on saline-alkali land to prevent increase of salt damage, nor can it be applied to boiled crops such as potato, sugar beet, tobacco leaf, tea tree, citrus, grape, etc. It should be used as little or as little as possible during dry seasons in arid regions.

8. Potassium sulfate: Potassium sulfate is a chemically neutral, physiologically acidic fertilizer. The response to the application in different soils is different: In acid soils, excess sulfate radicals will increase the acidity of the soil and even exacerbate the poisoning of active aluminum and iron in the soil. Under flooding conditions, excessive sulfate radicals are reduced to hydrogen sulfide, causing the root damage to become black. Therefore, long-term use of potassium sulphate must be combined with farmyard manure, basic phosphate fertilizer and lime to reduce acidity. The use of chlorine-free crops has outstanding results, such as tobacco, tea, grapes, sugar cane, sugar beets, watermelons, and potatoes, which not only increase production but also improve quality.

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