Asparagus cultivation techniques in summer and autumn

Asparagus, also known as asparagus, asparagus, asparagus in the lily family, perennial perennial plants, is a new type of nutrient health vegetable with high economic value and certain development potential. Asparagus is both cold-resistant and heat-resistant. It can be planted both in the north and the south, and it can get the highest quality and high yield in the warm summer and cold winter regions. The cultivation techniques are described below as follows.
1. Variety selection Fine varieties should be high-yielding, high-quality, tender stems with large, uniform and thick stems, round stalks, small and thin scales, but with tight head and scale buds; delicate texture, less fiber, delicious taste, and less bitterness. Early maturing varieties have many fine stems, and late-maturing species have less and thick stems. Among green bamboo shoots, the best varieties are California 157, California 711, California 309, Dutch all-male Geumi, American Alpaca F1, and Imperial F1.
2. Seedlings Asparagus is a perennial plant. Generally it grows in the north for 10 to 12 years. According to the plant morphology, it can be divided into seedling stage, juvenile stage, adult stage and senescence stage. Seed germination occurs until the seedling is planted (1 year), and from the time of planting to harvesting is infancy (2 to 3 years). From the start of harvesting, it is increased year by year to adulthood (10 to 12 years), after a certain number of years The output has declined year by year and it has entered the aging period. Most of the seed production or tissue culture methods are used in production. At present, seed propagation is the most common.
2.1 Pre-planting seedbeds Choose sandy loam with loose soil. Apply 667 square meters of 2500 to 4000 kg of fully-fertilized organic fertilizer and 25 to 30 kg of diammonium phosphate.
2.2 Seed sowing in summer and autumn sowing time before mid-August.
2.2.1 Seed treatment and sowing First rinse with cold water, rinse immature seeds and insects, then use hot water at 55°C for 10 minutes, then soak in water at 30°C for 2 to 3 days, change water once a day. Set germination under conditions of about 25°C, germinate once a day with clean water to prevent boring, 10% seed can be sown when exposed. To prevent seedling disease, use 50% carbendazim 300 times soaking for 12 hours (in conjunction with soaking), the amount of the seed is 1% of the weight of the seed, before the sowing, the bottom surface will be filled with water, after the water seepage 10 cm on demand, then the uniform with a good nutrient soil sieved on the surface, cover soil thickness of 2 to 3 cm, with iron spasm pressure. Or nurse the seedlings in a 10 cm 10 cm bowl. For every 667 square meters of seedbed with 0.6 ~ 0.75 kg, seedlings can be grown for 0.7 ~ 1 hectare of Daejeon colonization.
2.2.2 After sowing management Cover a layer of plastic film after sowing, then cover a small arch cover. Keep 5 centimeters of the temperature during the day, 25 to 30 degrees Celsius, and 15 to 18 degrees Celsius at night. After arching the earth, remove the mulch. After Qi Miao, the temperature within the chamber exceeds 32°C, and the seedlings must be ventilated promptly from both sides. With the external temperature stabilizing through 20°C, the arch membrane is removed and the adaptability to the external environment is increased. During weeding, we pay attention to weed control and control of pests. Underground pests can be treated with safe, low-resistance pesticides and dry sand, or combined with 5 kg of trichlorfon powder, or sweet and sour baits. Aphids can be controlled with dimethoate or imidacloprid. Seedling diseases are stem blight, brown spot, and blight. In particular, the occurrence of stem blight is very common. It can be sprayed with asparagus 600 times or 50% carbendazim 500 times, or 70% ketamine 800 times.
After sowing, the first water was poured at the height of 10 cm after the first shoot of young shoots of bamboo shoots, combined with watering of 667 square meters of 15 kg of urea or 15 kg of potassium chloride, and then watered and fertilized once in 20 days. Cultivate soil to prevent lodging.
3. Colonization
3.1 Before planting, prepare 2500 kg of mature basal fertilizer and 30-40 kg of diammonium phosphate per 667 square meters before planting and planting. Can also ditch, ditching after site preparation. Line spacing 140 to 150 cm 25 to 35 cm. The ditch is 40-50 cm deep and the ditch is 40 cm wide. 2500 kg of organic fertilizer put into the ditch, so that the soil surface of the ditch can be planted 10 cm from the ground. The distance between the plants is 30 cm.
3.2 When planting and colonization, the size of the seedlings is separated for management. The end of the seedlings with underground scale buds is arranged along the direction of the ditch (generally facing south) to facilitate future soil cultivation. The root group stretches perpendicular to the planting ditch. After planting, the cover soil is 4 to 5 centimeters thick. This stepped soil-covering cultivation method has high survival rate and robust plants.
4. Water and fertilizer and other management
4.1 In the year of planting fertilizer and water management, from July to August, 20 to 25 kg of compound fertilizer was applied with 667 square meters of water, and feces dilute could be applied 3 times. Li winter snow dripping water. In the second spring of planting, organic fertilizer is applied on the sides of the plant at 30-40 cm, 2000 kg per 667 square meters, 20 kg of compound fertilizer, and twice fecal dilute in the summer and autumn. The other management is the same as the first year. In combination with watering for each application of fertilizer, one harvest of water is poured for about 10 days during the harvest period. Later, with the development of the strains, fertilizer and water will increase appropriately, but the last top dressing will be carried out 2 months before the frost break. Frozen water should be put every year. September is a suitable stage for plant development and is a key period for fertilizer and water management. Pay attention to drainage during summer and autumn. If necessary, set up the column.
4.2 The soil temperature is generally stable at 10 to 10°C, ie from March to April, and the soil is 10 to 15 cm. The width of cultivating soil should be more than 20 cm around the tender stem. The soil should be fine and soft, and must not have unripe manure or residual stems to avoid rust spots on the stems. To restore the height of the sorghum to the height of the soil, keep the underground stem 15 centimeters below the surface of the earth, otherwise the underground stem will grow upwards, which will cause difficulties in earth-cultivation afterwards.
4.3 Covering the plastic mulch before the cover film is heating and water retention. Therefore, the quality and yield of asparagus can be improved. It can also be harvested 3-4 days in advance, and the harvest peak can be advanced 9-10 days ahead of schedule, so that the ridges can be placed earlier, so that the growth days of the shoots can be increased, and the foundation for the next year's high yield can be achieved. When the temperature exceeds 30°C, the plastic film is removed about 1 month after harvesting.
4.4 Cultivated and Weed Cultivation Planted asparagus lands are prone to breeding of weeds. Timely tillage and weed removal are recommended. When weeding by machinery or by hand, weeds are too deep and herbicides are recommended.
4.4.1 After sowing, pre-emergence application of 50% Lvgulong WP for every 667m2, 130 to 270g, or 70% for Secjin WP, 30 to 50g for 20 to 40kg per 667m2 Water is evenly sprayed on the soil surface. The amount of saiko should be increased or decreased depending on the soil texture, organic matter content and temperature. It should not be used on sandy soils with organic matter below 2%. It is also possible to use 50% Dafili WP to 100-150 grams per 667 square meters, evenly sprayed on the surface of the soil after the water.
4.4.2 Stem and leaf application Before the asparagus tender stems are excavated, the weeds are treated with soil and stem leaves at the seedling stage. A 40% atrazine suspension can be used. 130-250 ml per 667 m2 or 50% Simathrin wettability Powder 130 ~ 250 grams, add 30 ~ 50 kg of water, dubbed the agent, directional spray on the weeds stems and leaves.
4.5 The trimmed plant height 80 cm hit the top, and promptly cut old yellow branches and pests and diseases.
5. Harvesting is harvested every year from the beginning of March to the end of June. It is best to harvest before 9 a.m.. In the second year after planting green shoots, a small amount of tender stems can be harvested. ~ 27 cm, harvesting length of 25 to 27 cm, harvesting Qi surface cut. Packed after harvest and then graded according to acquisition criteria. Generally bundled into 500 grams of bundles, packed in plastic film or carton, sent to cold storage or freshly sold.
6. Diseases and pests control Asparagus diseases are mainly stem blight, brown spots, sclerotia, standing dead, root rot and rust. The main prevention and control are comprehensive prevention and removal of diseased stems and dead branches. Burning is concentrated and the scaffold is set to prevent lodging. Too long. At the beginning of the onset, 70% thiophanate-methyl was sprayed with 800-1000 times or 50% carbendazim was sprayed 1,000-fold once every 7-10 days and sprayed 2 or 3 times. Insect pests are mainly fleas, cockroaches, fly larvae, night larvae, golden worms, leaf miners, ten-star or twelve-star ladybugs, and locusts, etc., and can be used to control 90% trichlorfon 800 times to root or 1000 times spray Adults can be trapped with sweet and sour liquid poison or black light.

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