Deer breeding technology

Deer breeding technology

First, the overview of China's velvet deer?

(a) Overview?

Deer is a ruminant. Because its main product is different, people habitually divide deer into antler and deer, and antler has health care value. It is known as deer or deer. Currently, there are about 40 species of deer in the world. There are 10 genera and 16 species of deer distributed in our country. They are red deer, spotted deer, white-lipped deer, reindeer, moose (darkhan), elk (four non-like), and water. Deer (Black Deer), Zelu (Deer), Dolphin (Deer spotted), Tufted Deer (Hidden Horned Deer), Pelican, Cormorant (Hessian), Red Pelican, Black Pelican, and Small Pelican. Therefore, China is a country with rich deer resources. In particular, the domestication and deer breeding industry is the earliest and most advanced country in the world. There are several main domesticated deer - Northeast sika deer, Tianshan red deer, Tarim deer, Northeast horse. Deer are the best deer species. At present, my country has more than 400,000 heads of deer, and it produces nearly 100 tons of velvet annually. ??

(b) Main Domesticated Deer in China?

1. Northeast sika deer?

(1) Morphology and appearance characteristics Northeast spotted deer is a medium-sized deer. The adult male deer has a shoulder height of 95 to 105 cm, a body length of about 100 cm, and a weight of about 135 kg. The adult doe has a shoulder height of 80 to 95 cm and a body length of 75. ~ 95 cm, weight 75 ~ 85 kg. The northeastern sika deer has a beautiful body and a small head. Under the eyes, it has a well-developed infratemporal gland, commonly known as the "latent tear nest." The pheromone odor it secretes is a marker for identifying deer and delimiting territory. Body compact, well-proportioned limbs, main hoof narrow, good at running and jumping. The coat shows obvious seasonal changes. The hair is bright yellowish brown or reddish-brown. The top line is brown or dark brown. There are 4 to 6 white hairs on the sides of the body, and the white spotted flowers are arranged neatly. The more it grows, the bigger and rounder it is; the winter hair is brown or tan, but the white spot is darker, the coat on the inside of the abdomen and limbs is white, the hip spots are white, and the edges are surrounded by black hair bands. The male deer antler is a single-pronged pile with short eyebrows and a higher branching point. Generally, it is divided into four pods, and individual deer have five quintiles. Velvet pink, apricot or dark brown, slender hair. ?

(2) Geographical distribution Wild resources are mainly distributed in the southeast of Changbai Mountain and Xiaoxing'anling. Domesticated deer is almost all over the country, with a total of more than 200,000 heads, of which Jilin Province has the largest number of domestication, accounting for more than two-thirds of the nation's total head count. ?

(3) Living habits The wild northeast sika deer live in groups and their habitats are relatively fixed. They live in mountainous areas, semi-mountainous areas, water sources, and are easily concealed. Sleeping at night, eating and drinking before and after morning and evening, when the weather is hot or during the breeding season, you often go to the river or the gully to swim or mud bath. The deer's sense of smell and hearing are very sensitive, and they are good at distinguishing familiar scenes. During the estrus season, the top fight between the male deer was fierce, and the winner was king. He dominated the deer group or ruled the entire group of deer. However, the “king” was unstable and was often replaced by the new king. Doe lived all year round. Sika deer are sensitive to changes in the climate and are very active before the rain or when the pressure is low. Both ears stood upright in horror, the coat of the buttocks was standing upside down, grinding teeth, blinking, screaming, squeaking. During the breeding period, the male deer roars, blows his nose, repeatedly twitches the penis, and occasionally pulls out urine, often attacking people or “enemy rivals”. ?

(4) Production performance Northeast sika deer is an excellent velvet deer in the world. However, due to the different degree of breeding work, the performance of the performance is also different. For example, the production performance of Shuangyang Sika Deer, Changbai Mountain Sika Deer, and Xifeng Sika Deer ranks at the forefront both at home and abroad. The average dry weight of the first antler grown in the general deer is 25 to 30 g/branch, and the average weight of the adult sika deer 1 to 10 saw three tortoises is 2.5 to 3.0 kg/fu. The highest age of antler production is seven saws, and the average yield of fresh weight is 3.3 kg/pa. The average head and two saw deer two antler fresh weight average yield of 0.80 kg / pay. The breeding conditions of the Northeast sika deer, 16 to 18 months of age, sexual maturity, mating age of about 16 months, fertility rate of about 85%, the survival rate of good reproduction of the field home maintained at about 75%, the twin rate was about 2% . The slaughter rate of adult plum blossom deer ranges from 55% to 64%, and that of adult female deer ranges from 51% to 54%. The net meat rate is 48% to 55% for adult male deer and 37% to 43% for adult female deer. In the past decade or so, China's elite sika deer, which has been cultivated and passed through its identification, has Shuangyang deer species, Xifeng deer species, and Changbaishan deer strains. Shuangyang sika deer are now introduced. Shuangyang sika deer is produced in Shuangyang District, Changchun City, Jilin Province. After years of breed selection and breeding, in 1986, it passed the identification of the variety under the auspices of the Ministry of Agriculture. Shuangyang sika deer is currently the world's best deer, the deer body centered, compact and solid body structure, short limbs, chest and abdomen is wider and deeper, the head was wedge-shaped, the amount of wide flat, angular base distance is narrow. The antler is thick and rushed, the trunk curvature is small, and the velvet texture is soft and tender. Shuangyang sika deer shaggy brown or brown, plum spot large and sparse, the back line is not obvious. This species of deer has the largest amount of antler production in the country, with an average yield of 2.87 kilograms per kilogram of fresh velvet for sawing (at the time of identification). The best age for producing velvet is seven saws, and yield (fresh weight) is 3.52 kilograms per kilogram. In addition, Shuangyang sika deer showed obvious precocity and stable heredity. ?

2. Tianshan red deer?

Tianshan red deer is a red deer in the north of the Tianshan Mountains in Xinjiang (except Altai region). The locals call it a blue-skin red deer. Because of its high antler performance, it is the best red deer species in the world. ?

(1) Geographical distribution The wild Tianshan red deer is mainly distributed in Xinjiang. The domesticated Tianshan red deer, with the exception of Xinjiang, has introduced the Harbin Institute of Specialties, Daxinganling Forestry Bureau and Jilin Province in Liaoning and Heilongjiang provinces since the 1970s. ?

(2) Morphology and appearance characteristics Tianshan red deer are larger in size. The adult male deer has a shoulder height of 130 to 140 cm and a weight of 240 to 330 kg. The adult doe has a shoulder height of 120 to 125 cm and a weight of 160 to 200 kg. The Tianshan Red Deer has a shorter body than the Northeast Red Deer, and has a large chest and abdomen circumference. The head is wide and wide, with strong limbs and short tails. The summer hair is dark gray-brown, winter hair is light gray-brown, and the hip spots are white or light yellow-white, and surround gray-black bands. The coats of the head, neck, limbs and abdomen were deeper in color than the body's body, and were dark brown in color. The neck had well-developed mane and armpit hair. Tianshan pilose antler showed obvious characteristics of the species: the trunk and branches of the antler were relatively thick and long. Except for eyebrows and ice branches, the spacing of the other branches was larger, and the hair was thicker and longer than the northeastern red deer, gray, and angled. More than 6 inches. (3) Living habits Most of the wild Tianshan red deer live in the forest steppe with an altitude of 1500 to 3000 meters above sea level. In the early morning and early evening, they come out to feed and spring to the thawed sunny slopes. At the end of March, it will be on a young pasture and will often feed on salty and alkaline beaches. In summer, it feeds on the prairie's fertile grasslands, and in the fall and winter seasons it eats young branches, leaves, moss and various fruits. At the same time, the Tianshan red deer's activities showed a clear seasonal migration. In the summer, the mosquitoes migrated to the alpine open air for a long time, and returned to the bottom of the mountain in autumn. After the birth of the deer, the deer weaned in the spring of the following year, and the mother deer had to follow the doe for some time. The domesticated deer of the Tianshan Mountains are docile, but the fighting mate during the breeding period is still very fierce. They often attack people and like to sip the water in the sink. ?

(4) Production performance The antler performance of Tianshan red deer is the highest among all the red deer. The fresh weight of male antler of male deer during the rearing period can reach 1.5-2.5 kg/fu (the deer that breaks the base of the peach-palm base), and 1~? 10 sawing and harvesting the average output of fresh velvet antler is about 5.7 kg/pa. When the sawing or 10 saw is reached, the amount of velvet output reaches a peak, and most of them can receive four pod-type antler. The average yield (fresh weight) can reach 12.5 to 16.5 Kg/pay. The output of the regenerative velvet is also very high, and some of the deer can produce triterpenes. The unit yield (fresh weight) can reach 3.0-3.5 kg/pa. Most of the Tianshan red deer are sexually mature at about 16 months of age and participate in breeding at 28 months of age. The survival rate of reproduction in the country of origin in Xinjiang is low, generally about 40%, but after the introduction of the northeast region, the reproductive survival rate can reach 60% to 80%. Tianshan red deer have occasional twins. Since the Tianshan red deer is a deer species with high antler yield and strong adaptability, it was introduced to the northeast and north China and showed strong production performance. Therefore, it was used to improve the Northeast Red Deer and the Inner Mongolian Red Deer (father). ), have received significant results. ?

3. Tarim red deer (Yelva red deer)?

Tarim red deer are distributed along the Tarim River and the Peacock River Valley and on the shores of Bosten Lake south of the Tianshan Mountains. Therefore, the locals also call it the Tahe Red Deer and the Cao Lake Deer. Some call it the Southern Xinjiang red deer. ?

(1) Geographical distribution At present, about 10,000 heads of domesticated Tarim deer are mainly distributed in the Bayinge Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture, and most of them are raised in the second division of agriculture.

The group's field; followed by Aksu, Shah, Baicheng, Awati and Kuche. In the early 1970s, it was introduced into Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Shaanxi, Hubei, and Shanghai, but its adaptability was poor. ?

(2) Morphology and appearance characteristics Tarim red deer are the smaller species in the red deer, adult male deer shoulder height 118 ~ 125 cm, weighing 200 ~ 250 kg; adult doe shoulder height 105 ~ 120 cm, weight 120 ~ 160 kg. The deer has a compact body, a clear head, a clear shoulder, a solid limb and a flat tail. The summer hair is dark gray-brown, winter hair is light gray-brown, the back line is dark brown, the coat color on the back is darker, the inside of the neck, lower abdomen and inside of the limbs are off-white, the hip spots are white, and it extends down to the inside of the femur. There is a black-brown edge extending from the dorsal line. There are gray-yellow terry circles around the eye wheel, and the lower lip is white. There is a symmetrical white spot on the lower edge of the mouth. The bristles and armpits of the neck are shorter. The newly born deer's deer coat has spotted deer like a spotted deer, but it is lighter in color and disappears when it is removed. Tarim horse antler-type large, mostly two-door pile, short trunk, thick round, mouth head hypertrophy, Velvet tender, gray fur, long, adult male antler more than 5 to 6 杈. ?

(3) Living habits Tarim red deer lived in the wilderness of the Gobi desert, the dunes, the hot climate, and the scarce rainfall in the northern margin of the Tarim Basin. This resulted in the formation of drought-resistant and rough-feeding types. The deer camp lived, especially the adult deer and young deer under the age of three lived together. The adult male deer lived alone. When the male deer was mixed, the male and female deer were mixed. In the early spring, the deer began to dig horny, and his temperament became docile. He left the group and dispersedly spent the spring and summer seasons. The deer's farrowing condition became fierce. The wild Tarim red deer has a seasonal level of migration. In the spring and summer, it is in the swamps, grass lakes, along rivers, or in highland shrubs. In the autumn and winter, the bell stings and red willows appear in the Gobi Desert. Bushes or dry areas with dense forests, hills and salt. This species of deer is extensively eaten, often drinking water with high salinity, and the food is mainly halophyte. Most of them stayed up for food. ?

(4) The production performance of 1 to 10 saw the average of up to 5.3 kilograms per kilogram of fresh velvet, and the 1 to 7 saw sika deer grows significantly with age. According to the statistical results of 1989, Tarim deer production The average amount of velvet is (fresh weight): 1.6 kg/paid for first velvet, up to 2.9 kg/pax; 3.2 kg/paid for sawdust, up to 5.3 kg/pax; 7.11 kg/pastre for more than 5 saws, maximum Up to 14 kg / pay. 9 When you saw the peak of the antler. The Tarim Red deer reached sexual maturity at 16 months of age, and began to participate in breeding. The survival rate of most of the fields was maintained at about 80%. ?

4. Northeast Red Deer (also known as yellow hip red deer)?

(1) Geographical distribution Wild provenances are mainly distributed in the Changbai Mountain Range, Wandashan Mountain and the Daxing and Xiaoxing'an Mountains. In Inner Mongolia and Heilongjiang provinces are more distributed.

(2) Morphology and appearance The northeastern red deer is a large velvet deer, and the adult male deer has a shoulder height of 130 to 140 cm, a body length of 135 to 145 cm, a weight of 230 to 320 kg, and an adult doe shoulder height of 115 to 130 cm. It is 118 to 132 cm in length and 110 to 135 kg in weight. The head is larger, it is wedge-shaped, the infratemporal gland is developed, and the lacrimal fossa is obvious. Longer limbs, more robust hind legs, strong running ability. Northeastern deer shag is reddish-brown or millet, winter hair is thick and densely gray-brown, and the abdomen and the inside of the strand are white. The hip spots are mostly light yellow with short tail hairs and their coat color is the same as hip spots. The armpit hair is longer and the armpit hair is darker in winter. The newborn baby's body has obvious white spotted flowers on both sides, and the spotted flowers disappear when the winter wool is changed. The northeast pilose antler has a lower birth point and is a two-door pile (with a low rate of single piles). The distance between the eyebrows and ice branches is very short. The main trunk and the eyebrows are short, the velvet is more solid and the hair is dark brown. . The angle can be divided into up to 5 to 6 inches. ?

(3) Living habits Northeastern red deer have poorer social habits than sika deer. They perennially inhabit more mixed forests in mountainous regions or in forest grasslands. They often eat grass in the spring and autumn seasons and often go to saline-alkaline beaches for food. During the period of the antler, the deer lived alone in the depths of the forest to avoid predators. The breeding period is mixed with the female deer, and the fighting between the deer and the deer is very powerful until the winner dominates the doe, the loser flees and the new one is sought. The doe gregariously lives in hot summers or during the estrus season. It often goes to gullies and rivers, and in the autumn it often goes to farms to steal crops. Northeastern red deer were domesticated, their temperament became more gentle, their size was larger than that of wild breeds, their adaptability was also enhanced, and they were easy to manage. ?

(4) Production performance Northeast red deer's antler performance is worse than that of Tianshan red deer. 9 to 10 months old male deer begin to grow the first antler, and the average yield of fresh antler is 0.7 kilograms per year; adult male deer 1 to 10 saws average production. Three oysters are about 3.2 kg/pa. The northeast elaphus velvet is magnetic and its branch head is thin and small, so the antler is not as good as the Tianshan red deer. 16-month-old female deer can estrus, but all are mated at 28 months of age. The conception rate is about 65%. The reproductive survival rate is maintained at about 47%, and the rate of twins does not exceed 1%. The slaughter rate of the adult male deer is about 53.2%, the adult female deer is about 50.8%, and the net meat percentage is about 42.5% for the adult male deer and about 39.5% for the adult female deer. ?

Second, deer farm construction?

(i) The choice of site?

1. Topography and soil conditions?

The terrain should be high-desert, low in the north, high in the south (about 5 degrees in slope), sandy soil, or sandy soil. The mountainous area should choose sheltered, sunny, well-drained areas. ?

2. Feed conditions?

Sites with adequate feed sources (especially roughage) should be selected. For example, spotted deer needs an average of 400 kilograms per year per head, about 2 000 kilograms of roughage, and red deer each year needs 600 kilograms of concentrate feed and 4,000 kilograms of roughage. If it is a deer, the deer needs about 15 mu of ranch and 22.5 mu of red deer per head. ?

3. Water and water quality?

To ensure that there are sufficient water sources and good water quality, attention should be paid to the content of minerals and trace elements in the water and avoid drinking contaminated river water. ?

4. Social environmental conditions?

The site should be far away from the highway (1.0 to 1.5 kilometers), and it should be 5 kilometers from the railway to facilitate disease prevention. At the same time, it should also facilitate the purchase and transportation of substances and feeds and the delivery of products. The site should not be built near industrial and mining areas and public facilities. Since deer and cattle and sheep are both ruminants and have communicable infectious diseases, they should not be reared together with cattle and sheep and share a ranch and feed farm, and should not be built in places contaminated by cattle and sheep. ??

(b) The layout of the deer farm?

According to the unique operating characteristics and development plan of the deer industry, combined with site wind direction, direction, aspect and feed hygiene requirements, various structures of the deer farm should be rationally distributed to facilitate operations, improve labor efficiency, and ensure the deer industry’s Normal development. The layout of the deer farm is best chosen in a wide range of venues. The residential areas, management areas, auxiliary areas, and deer areas are arranged in parallel from west to east, or in a staggered manner to the northeast. The layout and arrangement of the deer's homes should be more concentrated. There should be more spacious corridors between the buildings, which is convenient for deer, domestication and feeding management. The fine material room and the spice room should be connected to each other near the water source. The roughage warehouse should be located in the downwind of the deer house to facilitate fire prevention. To prevent pollution, fecal sites should also be located in the downwind of buildings such as deer houses. ?

(C) deer design?

The deer's design principle is to prevent the deer from escaping, the winter dynasty to be cold, the summer to avoid the heat, the light is sufficient, and the ventilation is good, which meets the needs of the deer's biological characteristics and growth and development. The deer house includes sheds, playgrounds, passages, fences, and Baoding Circles. ? The construction area of ​​the deer house differs depending on the deer species, sex, age, and feeding style. In general, the area for feeding deer and red deer are shown in Table 7-1. Each building has a construction area of ​​about 14 meters wide, a span of 5 to 6 meters, and a sports field of 20 to 25 meters. Such a large deer house can develop about 25 plum blossom deer, about 20 adult deer, and about 30 deer breeding; about 15 male deer adult deer, about 15 adult deer, and 20 deer deer. about.
The deer house is generally a three-walled brick-tile structure with a herringbone or flat-topped shed cover. The front is a circular column with a cement structure. The front of the shed is 2.1-2.2 meters from the ground, and the rear ridge is 1.8. In meters, two to three small windows should be left behind each house. The wall of the stadium is 1.8-2.1 meters high and the wall is 37 centimeters wide. When the brick wall is as high as 1.2 meters, a three-lined flower wall is built to facilitate ventilation. The top of the wall should be flashed to raise the ridge or wipe the cement roof. However, the external wall of the deer field should be as high as 2.3 meters. The trampoline should be strong and dry, compacted with a triaxial soil or paved with a brick. The ground of the sports ground should be covered with large sand or weathered sand, and it is better to use bricks to cover the ground. Each deer should have a 4-metre-wide passage, and each passage should be connected to facilitate deer. Each home circle door should be located in the middle of the front wall, 1.5 to 1.7 meters wide and 1.8 to 2.0 meters high. ?

(1) Feeding equipment Drinking water can be used as a cauldron or a sink welded with iron plates. The north should place it on the pan to warm the water in winter. Feeding troughs often use wider cement or wooden troughs, most of which are fixed in the middle of the stadium. ?

(2) Baoding equipment includes hanging rings and midwifery boxes. If large-scale deer farms are built, consideration should be given to constructing a hanging ring and using their antler, treatment and deer deer for such work. Because relying solely on drugs, Baoding not only raises costs, but also brings inconvenience to management. ?

(3) In order to facilitate the nursing, treatment, supplementation and management of the deer, the calving equipment should ensure the safety and survival of the newborn deer. The deer protection column should be set in the deer's house so that the deer can only enter and leave, and the adult deer cannot enter. Specific practice: usually use a high 1.5 meters high, roughly 4 to 5 centimeters round wood rod (iron pipe can also be), made a 13 cm fence between the rod and the rod, and then use a few thicker wooden rod fixed On the house frame. The fence should be located on the left or right side of the partition wall. The width of the column is 1.5 meters. The length can be determined according to the number of deer, and the gate is set at one end. The floor of the fence is covered with a floor and the grass is covered with a sink and trough. The ground in the column should always be kept clean and dry and regularly sterilized. ?

(4) Other facilities of the deer farm include a roughage shed, a fodder storehouse, a feed processing room, a condiment room, a product processing room, an office, etc., as well as crush feed, deer product processing, and mechanical transport equipment. ?

Third, the velvet deer feed?

The deer has a wide range of dietary habits. Generally, about 180 species of plant feeds can be eaten by the wild deer, and more than 300 species of red deer can be found. However, the type of feed intake after house feeding is limited to only a few dozen species, and there are no significant differences in the type of feed between various species of deer. Deer's feed can be divided into four categories: vegetable feed, animal feed, mineral feed, and special feed according to its source. Proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals are classified according to the nutrients they contain. And trace element feeds; but in the actual production, people habitually divided into three categories of fine feed, rough feed and mineral feed. ??

(a) Fine feed?

It mainly includes the seeds of crops and the byproducts of their processing. This kind of feed is rich in nutrients, small in volume and strong in palatability, and it is essential for growth, development, antler and reproduction of velvet deer. ?

1. Kind and nutritional value?

Commonly used concentrates include soybean cakes, soybean meal, soybeans, corn, wheat bran, rapeseed cakes, sunflower cakes, sorghum, alfalfa and dregs. Bean cakes and soybean meal are the main concentrate feed for the deer industry, containing about 45% of crude protein and many essential amino acids, containing more phosphorus, less calcium, and bean cake containing fat is 5-6 times that of soybean meal. The deer's digestibility of soybean cake is about 88%. Corn is the most energy-intensive concentrate used by deer, contains 71% to 79% of nitrogen-free extracts (mainly starch), and has low protein and mineral content, especially the lack of lysine and tryptophan. , but with the beans feed can complement each other nutritional deficiencies. Soybeans contain 37% to 41% crude protein, about 16% crude fat, and more essential amino acids. The crude protein digestibility of sika deer is 81%. Wheat bran contains 13% to 16% of crude white matter, which is higher than that of grass seeds. It contains 55% to 63% nitrogen-free extracts, and is rich in phosphorus and crude fiber and B vitamins. ?

2. Processing modulation?

The quality of concentrate feed processing directly affects its nutritional value, utilization, and palatability. The processing methods are mainly crushing, soaking or aging, fermentation and the like. The bean cake is mainly cut into pieces or crushed into noodles, then soaked, soaked in summer for about 2 hours, and soaked in winter for more than 5 hours. Corn can be crushed into fine flour, then soaked with bean cakes, bran, or boiled corn to make a mix. Because soybean contains an anti-trypsin factor that affects the absorption of protein, soybeans should be cooked or ground into milk and matured before feeding deer. Wolfberry and bran feeds should be mixed and soaked with other fine feeds, and soaking alone will thicken the mouth. The preparation of concentrate feed should be protected against rancidity, and cereal feeds should be crushed into fine flour. In addition, the salt needed for each bubble is best made into salt water, and then the foam is used. The required bone powder should be mixed with the mixture before the foaming.

(b) Roughage

The velvet deer is a herbivorous animal, so it should be dominated by roughage all year round, and more intensive feed is needed during the velvet period and breeding season. To sum up, roughage can be divided into four categories: fodder, forage, agricultural and sideline products, and green and juicy feed. ?

1. Foliage feed?

It mainly includes the branches and leaves of eucalyptus, eucalyptus, poplar, willow, birch, eucalyptus (branch), hazel, etc. Some regions also use the leaves of apple trees and hawthorn to feed deer, but organic phosphorus should be prevented. Poisoning. These leaves are rich in nutrients when rich, rich in protein, vitamins, minerals and trace elements, all kinds of deer are very fond of eating, of which the best leaves of eucalyptus. Eucalyptus, birch and poplar twigs contain more calcium, and dry matter contains 15% to 20% of crude protein. In addition, the nutritional value of Liu Maozi is high, and it also has high nutrients in the fall. According to material reports, fresh hazel and Lespedeza leaves can be crushed, and the deer can be fed after 0.5 to 1.0 days of fermentation to increase its nutritional value and utilization. It has also been reported that in the northern regions, the leaves were silted before and after the white dew, and the deer was fed in the spring of the following year. Satisfactory results were obtained. After the beginning of autumn, the low shrubs can be cut, bundled, dried and preserved. The nutritional value of the feed should exceed that of autumn yellow leaves and agricultural and sideline products. In the South, there are also large banyan trees, mulberry trees, and silver-green leaves feeding deer. ??

2. Forage feed?

It can be divided into natural pastures and cultivated pastures. Wild pastures include alkaloids, leaflets, clover, mustard grasses, reeds, mountain grasses, artemisia, red-bow bows, wild grasses, etc.; artificially cultivated forage grasses include grasshoppers, clover, grasses, and sand-wang. Herbage is rich in protein, vitamins and minerals. Crude protein content is 10% to 21%, nitrogen-free extract is 40% to 60%, and deer digestibility is 43% to 63%. Most of pastures are fed whole, but if they are fed with deer, the palatability and utilization rate can be improved. Some deer farms crush the hay into grass powder, and then use the cornmeal to feed the deer after saccharification, which has received good results. Pasture should be kept away from rain and mildew. ?

3. Agricultural and sideline products feed?

Including crop straw and threshing by-products, mainly corn stalks, bean stalks, bean kisses, cottonseed husks, sweet potato pods, peanut pods, cereal grass and so on. This part of the feed has a high content of crude fiber, with dry matter of 28% to 48%, nitrogen-free extracts of 40% to 50%, crude protein of 3% to 8%, and less vitamin and calcium phosphorus content. These feeds are mainly fed in the autumn, winter, and spring seasons, and they are best crushed to improve utilization. When these feedstuffs are stored, they should also be protected against mildew, especially sweet potato pods and peanut pods. Because of their high water content, they should be properly kept. ?

4. Juicy green feed?

This part of the feed includes barley feed, silage, root feed and melon feed. This type of feed is rich in protein, vitamins, and calcium and phosphorus, and has a high yield, a juicy green color, and a good palatability. Adult deer's digestibility of silage corn reached 63.7%. At present, the barley fodder mainly includes alfalfa, mixed corn, soybeans, clover, and turfgrass, etc. It can cut 2 to 3 baht each year. Processing of silage corn, the North before and after the white dew, the corn stalks (preferably with spikes) into a 2 ~ 3 cm segment, filled in pre-renovated silo (silage tower, silage), and compaction Sealed, then covered with 50 cm thick soil. Quick storage, compaction and sealing are the three key links in silage. The corn stalks after harvesting corn are used for silage, and an appropriate amount of water is added during storage (the moisture content of the corn stalk reaches about 70%). The stored silage is usually fed after 1 month and it should be fed from one end of the pit to the other. Root feeds include carrots, Jerusalem artichokes, radishes, beets, onions, etc., and should be washed, cut into small pieces, and filled into the feed tank. It is especially suitable for breeding, deer, and young deer during the breeding period. Melon feed mainly refers to pumpkin, but also cut into small pieces. ?

(c) mineral feed?

It is essential to maintain the normal metabolism of velvet deer, especially during the velvet period, pregnancy and lactation, and young deer development. This part of the feed mainly includes salt, bone meal, eggshell powder, loquat powder, Nanjing stone powder and calcium hydrogen phosphate, but in practical applications, it should be noted that these mineral feeds (except salt) should be suitable for calcium and phosphorus content, hydrogen phosphate The content of fluorine in calcium must not exceed 0.18%, otherwise it will cause fluorosis. The amount of supplemental salt is 1.5% to 1.8% of the amount of concentrate feed, and the amount of supplemental calcium and phosphorus is 0.8% to 1.2% of the amount of concentrate feed. In particular, calcium and phosphorus should be paid attention to when feeding corn stalks and greenish succulent feeds. Added. In addition to the above feeds, there are special feeds that can promote the growth of velvet, increase production, and prevent certain diseases. These feeds use less, but they have a greater effect on a certain aspect of the body. Most of these feeds are fed as additives. However, in practical applications, it should be emphasized that it should be targeted and not blindly applied, that is, it should be combined with the lack of certain elements in the region or the lack of requirements for certain aspects of the body, and the feed should not be satisfied; Attention to the overall unity of the body, the absorption and utilization of a variety of trace elements have a balanced ratio, simply increase an element, the body can not be absorbed, but cause waste. The urea should also be mentioned in the special feed. It has gradually attracted the attention of domestic and foreign husbandry as a protein substitute for ruminants, and it is low in cost and safe. The use of urea: First, according to the amount of concentrate 3%, after the water is evenly mixed into the feed; Second, according to the amount of 1% of the water solution made by spraying on the forage; The third is in the production of silage corn Mix evenly with 2% of dry matter. ?

Fourth, the velvet deer feeding management technology?

(i) General feeding and management techniques?

1. The deer's mark?

The mark is to number the deer. The purpose is to identify the deer, which is conducive to production management and archival records. It is very important for deer breeding and production performance improvement. Now there are two kinds of deer markings: one is the Karel method, which means that the deer's two ears are cut into different spots and then the numbers represented by each gap add up, which is the deer's ear number. This method is based on the pig's card number method in the world. It is very regular. The left ear represents a large number and the right ear is small, and it is a symmetrical relationship. Specifically, the left edge of the left ear has a gap of 10 per card, a gap of 30 per ear at the bottom of the ear, 200 gaps at the tip of the ear, 800 gaps at the middle of the auricle, and a gap at the corresponding position of the right ear. Represents 1, 3, 100, 400. The second is the signage method, which is the use of special tools to mark the special signs in the deer's ears, and then use a special pen on the card to write the required deer number, permanent will not fade. The Beijing Dairy Cow Institute can provide signs and special tools. The Lukaer number and the signage should be carried out 3 days after the deer. 2. The grouping and layout of Velvet deer should be based on their different breeds, sex, age, and health status. Reasonable grouping and layout should be carried out respectively. It is absolutely not allowed to mix and raise animals regardless of size, male and female, and breed. The layout of the deer should place the deer at the top of the deer's field to prevent the male deer from smelling the estrus in the breeding period to exacerbate their disputes and injuries. Pregnancy deer dosing should be arranged in quieter sheds in the field. The deer are arranged in the pens near the field or team department to facilitate the management and domestication of the deer. ?

3. Feeding times, times, and sequences?

Deer is usually fed 3 times a day. It is better to feed 4 times of concentrated feed (3 times during the day and 1 time at night) in the production season (milk production and calving season). Feeding time: from the beginning of April to the end of October, early feeding 4 : 00 to 5:00, lunch at 11:00, late feeding at 17:00 to 18:00; winter feeding during the day (early 8:00, 16:00), night feeding ( Around 23:00). After deer feeding times and times have been set, they should remain relatively stable, which will help the deer to establish a solid conditioned reflex, feed and digestive function. The feeding sequence is first followed by coarsening, that is, first feeding the concentrate, until the deer eats the net, then gives the roughage. It is required that the feed and soil in the feed tank should be cleaned every time. The increase and decrease of refined and roughage must be carried out gradually. To increase the amount of material or to change the feed abruptly can easily cause “top feed” and refusal to feed. ?

4. Drinking water?

You can drink water (timed water) or free water (that is, water is often kept in the sink, and the deer can drink at any time). The water quality is required to be clean, the amount of water is sufficient, and warm water should be taken in winter, and the northern area should prevent the sink from freezing. ?

5. Homes hygiene?

Keep the sheds sanitary and clean the house's feces and feed residues every day. In order to keep warm in winter, feces in the shed can be properly preserved, and the sheds are often sterilized. ?

**: refers to urea etc.?

Table 7-2 Formula I has a high content of legume feed and minerals and is suitable for juvenile deer, velvet period male deer and male deer, deer during lactation, and sick deer; formula II is mainly based on cereal feed. Used only for off-season production of adult deer. ??

(b) adult male deer breeding management techniques?

1. The division of production period?

In order to facilitate production management and increase the productivity of deer, according to the deer's production, artificially divide its production period for one year into four periods. Sika deer: early period of velvet (from late January to mid-March), velvet period (from late March to mid-August), breeding period (from mid-August to November 15), and restoration of breeding (November 15~ In mid-January of the following year); Red deer: Early period of velvet (middle of January to mid-February), period of velvet (late February to early August), breeding period (mid-August to early November), and restoration period of breeding (mid-November to early January). The beginning and end of each period differ depending on the deer species, geographic location, climatic conditions, deer quality, and feeding techniques. If some of the above factors are better, each period may be ahead of time, otherwise Lag. ??

2. Diets in different production periods?

At present, the deer's concentrate feed has little difference in various regions, mainly consisting of corn, beans, and bran. The amount of feed in each production period is basically the same, while the roughage is adapted to local conditions. The quality of the concentrate feed should be guaranteed, and carrots and other vitamin feeds should be supplied during the breeding period.

Note: Juicy feeds mainly refer to roots and melons; roughages during the velvet period and breeding season refer to fresh weight. ??

3. Feeding management technology?

(1) velvet period?

A male deer not only needs its own nutrient for survival during the velvet period, but also has to meet the nutrition needed for the growth of pilose antler. Three deer sika velvet saw an average of 30.05 grams of fresh weight per day and Northeast Red Deer 1 to 11 saw antler and stalks of 55.319.3 grams. Therefore, the velvet period must have a high level of nutrition. The results of the study showed that the protein levels in the antler diets of the head and two saw plum blossoms should be 23%, and the weight of the body should be best when the three saw deer should be at 21%. At the same time, the amount of minerals and vitamins should also be guaranteed. ?

2 Before velvet (Sika deer in late February, red deer in early January), the amount of concentrate should be gradually increased to promote male deer rejuvenation and rejuvenation. When the deer is removed, it should basically be close to the amount of antler. Every 3 to 5 days or 7 to 10 days increase about 0.1 kg. After sawing the three pod velvet, the concentrate feed should be reduced to 1/2 to 1/3 of the original immediately, in order to reduce the public deer's lyrical condition, so as to reduce the casualties caused by the dedication during the breeding period.

3 The velvet period is a hot summer season and should keep the deer drinking enough water. The amount of water to the deer 7 to 9 kg / sun, red deer 15 to 20 kg / sun. ?

4 Keep a close watch on the deer's off-platter situation and find that the flower-vein pressure-feeding velvet should not be lost in a timely manner. ?

5 During the velvet period, keep the deer's house quiet and refuse to visit. Before the deer enters the velvet period, foreign objects such as iron nails, iron wires, wooden piles, etc. at the walls, doors, columns, etc. in the pens should be removed to prevent scratching the antler. ?

6 After the sawdust velvet is started, the sawn-tailed male deer should be raised in separate groups for management purposes. ?

(2) During the breeding period, due to strong deer sex, chasing each other, fighting together, barking, poor appetite, and physical deterioration, the feeding and management during this period should be strengthened. Otherwise, it will be easy to die during the winter and affect the output of the leap year. . ?

1 The male deer should be grouped individually according to species, non-species, age, old age, sickness, etc., and then deer and old deer should be given excellent feeding. ?

2 The maturing period of roughage should be selected from palatable, sweet, spicy, bitter and higher feeds containing sugar and vitamins. For example, whole plant corn of barley, fresh branches, melons, carrots, radishes, onions, beets, etc. To increase deer feed intake. ?

3 The breeding period should pay attention to maintaining the relative stability of the male deer group. Deer species are best managed in small circles alone. The deer species that can be exchanged must not be placed in non-species. Because of their odor, the deer can suffer from a "death." ?

4Specialty period should be set up for people to observe the breeding ability of the male deer. Once the species deer found to be not "competent" should be immediately exchanged; at the same time, the husband and wife of the deer must be stopped. . The prince deer found in Taiwan has to be set aside and kept alone.

5 Breeding period requires no mud, no bricks and stones on the ground. ?

(3) The overwintering period includes the two stages of breeding and antler breeding. During the cold season, the deer body not only needs to consume part of the heat to protect the environment, but also needs to restore the constitution during the breeding period and accumulate “power” for the antler. Often due to poor wintering management, it often causes the deer to die in spring. ?

1 From the nutritional point of view, while satisfying the supply of energy feed (grain), gradually increase the protein and vitamin feeds, and promote deer growth and rejuvenation as soon as possible. ?

2 The number of feedings in winter is 2 times during the day and 1 at night. It is best to feed hot material at night. ?

3 This period must ensure that there is enough drinking water, and should drink warm water. ?

4 Strengthen the exercise of deer feeding deer, use half an hour each day in the morning and afternoon to drive the deer in the house. ?

5 The house should be kept dry, clean and free of snow. The floor of the house should have enough sedge or dried manure. ?

6 The management of deer herds should be strengthened to prevent the death and injury of deer due to martial-property and field female [JX-6] rape. Disadvantaged deer are set aside at any time and fed separately. ?

7 The highest incidence of necrobiotic disease in this period should be promptly prevented and treated. ??

(iii) Feeding management techniques for adult doe?

The division of production period?

According to the production cycle and breeding characteristics of the deer, the artificial production process of the deer is divided into the breeding period (September to November 15th), pregnancy (November to May of the following year), and the littering period ( From May to August, of course, the division of each period should not be one size fits all. ?

Note: The roughage during the breeding period and the litter-bearing period refers to fresh weight. ??

The corresponding rations should be rationed according to different production periods. In particular, the amount and quality of the diet should be paid attention to in the late gestation period and the lactation period. Therefore, the deer should not only ensure its own nutritional needs, but also have to meet the development of the fetus and lactation deer. Nutrition.母鹿各期的日粮见表7-4。 ?


(1)配种期母鹿离乳后,到9月中旬时膘情必须达到中等水平,这样才能保证正常的发情、排卵。 ?

①此期应供给一定量的蛋白质和丰富的维生素饲料,如豆饼、青刈大豆、切割的全株玉米以及胡萝卜、大萝卜等。 ?

②淘汰不育、老龄、后裔不良及有恶癖的母鹿,然后按其繁殖性能、年龄、膘情及避开亲缘关系组建育种核心群和普通生产群。配种母鹿群不宜大,梅花鹿每群15~18头、马鹿11~12头。 ?

③配种期应设专人看管,发现母鹿发情,公鹿不能“胜任”时,应立即将发情母鹿拨入公鹿可配种的舍内,并应马上调换原舍的公鹿。 ?

④为了避免近亲繁殖,系谱清楚,一般应采用单公群母一配到底的配种方法,母鹿也不应随意调换。同时必须确保种公鹿有较强的种用能力。 ?

(2)妊娠期应保证妊娠母鹿的营养需要(妊娠后期的3个月,胎儿日增重555克),首先应满足蛋白质、维生素和矿物质的需求。妊娠初期应多给些青饲料、块根类饲料和质量良好的粗饲料;妊娠后期要求粗饲料适口性强、质量好、体积小。饲喂次数每日3次,其中夜间1次。饲料应严防酸败、结冰,饮温水。同时,妊娠期严防惊扰鹿群,过急驱赶鹿群。严禁舍内地面有积雪、结冰。 ?

(2)产仔哺乳期产仔哺乳的母鹿需要大量的蛋白质、脂肪、矿物质和维生素A、D等营养物质,梅花母鹿每天需泌乳700毫升左右,所以必须加强饲养管理,这样才能保证仔鹿的良好发育,并为离乳后母鹿的正常发情做好准备。 ?

①母鹿分娩后,消化道的容积和机能显著增强,饮水量也多,应保证量足、质优的青饲料,后期投给带穗全株玉米更佳。 ?

②精饲料最好喂给小米粥,或用豆浆拌精料饲喂,可提高母鹿的泌乳,进而促进仔鹿快速生长发育。 ?

③要保持仔鹿圈的清洁卫生。产仔前,应将圈舍全面清扫后,彻底进行一次消毒,以后也应经常消毒。 ?

④产仔期要设专人看圈,防止恶癖鹿舔肛、咬尾、趴打仔鹿。被遗弃的仔鹿要找保姆鹿或采取人工哺乳。 ?

⑤要保持产仔圈的安静,谢绝参观。 ?

⑥哺乳期要做好仔鹿的驯化工作,以利今天的管理。 ??


幼鹿包括哺乳仔鹿和离乳后的育成鹿。幼鹿饲养管理的好坏直接影响未来鹿群的质量,所以一定要引起高度的重视。 ?


初生仔鹿的护理显得十分重要。正常情况下,母鹿分娩后首先舔干仔鹿身体,然后使仔鹿吃上初乳(仔鹿产后10~15分钟就能站立起来找到乳头),但有的弱生仔鹿,或有的初产母鹿惧怕仔鹿,还有的母性不强的不管仔鹿,这时应人工辅助使其吃上初乳。对那些实在不能哺上乳的仔鹿,可以采取两种办法:一是用牛、羊的初乳代替,进行人工哺乳;二是用注射器强行抽取该母鹿的初乳喂新生仔鹿,3天后可进行人工哺乳,或者找代养母鹿。代养母鹿选择性情温顺、母性强、泌乳量高的产后1~2天的母鹿。代养的方法是将代养仔鹿送入代养母鹿的小圈内(最好的办法取代养母产仔的胎衣或其尿液涂抹在代养仔鹿身上),如代养母鹿舔嗅代养仔,不趴打,让其哺乳,即说明代养成功,之后也应经常观察代养仔鹿是否能正常地哺上乳。另外,产仔圈应设仔鹿保护栏,可以保证仔鹿的休息、安全,减少疾病的发生,又可以待仔鹿产后20几天补料(仔鹿的精饲料配方:豆饼占50%、高粱面10%、玉米面30%、麸子10%,加入适量的食盐和骨粉),补给精料的量由少到多、次数由多到少,最后达到每日2次,每次投料前应清洁饲槽。其次,产仔期饲养人员每日要认真观察仔鹿的精神、姿式、鼻镜、粪便、哺乳、步态等,发现异常,马上诊治。 ??


仔鹿离乳后即进入育成期。 ?

(1)离乳于8月中、下旬一次性断乳分群或分2~3次断乳。方法是用驯化程度较高的几头成年母鹿领入预定的鹿舍内,然后再拨出成年母鹿。如果仔鹿的数量较多时,可根据仔鹿的日龄、体质情况分成若干个小群,分群时最好同时将公母仔鹿分开管理。 ?

(2)应安排有经验的人员饲养管理,并应经常的接触仔鹿,做到人鹿亲合。 ?






性成熟即是生殖生理上的成熟,此时鹿可以生成成熟的精子和卵子,并有性行为。茸鹿的性成熟与品种、类型、性别、遗传状况、营养情况及个体发育等因素有关,梅花鹿比马鹿早,雌性早于雄性,同一品种鹿营养状况好和个体发育快的性成熟也早。一般性成熟期:梅花母鹿约在16月龄左右,发育良好的鹿有7个月龄就达到性成熟,公鹿为20个月龄左右;马鹿约为28个月龄,但有部分鹿16个月龄即达到性成熟。 ?适宜的初配年龄,梅花母鹿为16个月龄、公鹿为40个月龄(三锯公鹿);马母鹿为28个月龄、公鹿40个月龄(三锯)。 ?


(1) 发情期茸鹿是季节性的发情动物,在我国的北方(北纬40以北地区),茸鹿发情季节为9~12月份*

(2) 发情周期

(3) 发情持续期后11~24小时为发情盛期;马鹿24小时左右,发情后6~7小时为发情盛期。 ?




首先,应根据历年的产茸情况、种用能力及育种方向选择好种公鹿,年龄3~7锯、精力充沛、性欲旺盛、精液品质好、产茸量高的作种公鹿。要求产茸量:梅花鹿锯标准三杈茸鲜重单产在3.5公斤以上、马鹿为5.5公斤(三杈)或7.5公斤(四杈)以上。并从7月中旬后加强种公鹿的饲养。 ?对繁殖母鹿应于8月中旬断乳,并按年龄、体况及育种规划组成配种群(梅花鹿15~18头/群、马鹿10~12头/群)。对母鹿也应加强饲养,进入配种期应达到中上等膘情,但不宜过肥。并应合理地安排好公、母鹿舍,准备好配种记录。 ?


茸鹿的配种方法有群公群母配种法、单公群母配种法(又分为一配到底和中间替换两种)、试情配种法、定时放对配种法和人工授精法。但是常用的方法是单公群母一配到底法。具体方法是,梅花鹿应于9月10日、马鹿于9月5日前后将1头种公鹿放入母鹿群内,如公鹿没有特殊情况,直至配种结束时拨出。 ?但是,如果优良种公鹿较少的时候,可以采用试情配种法或定时放对配种法。即将种公鹿和试情公鹿单独饲养在小圈内,于每天早晨4~6时、晚上16~18时,定时将试情公鹿或种公鹿放入母鹿舍内寻找发情鹿,然后进行配种,待每次确认没有发情母鹿时再将公鹿赶回小圈内,结束试情放对。这种方法可以最大限度地发挥优良种公鹿的种用性能。每头种公鹿在一个配种期可配35头左右母鹿,同时,后代的系谱清楚,但是工作量大些。 ?茸鹿配种工作应注意的问题:在公母鹿选配时防止近亲,并防止有相同性状缺陷的种公、母鹿交配,初配公、母鹿也不应交配;中间替换出的种公鹿应单独饲养,否则因其带有发情母鹿的气味易遭到其它公鹿的攻击;配种结束时,选择晴天,于早晨?8:00?时以前将公鹿拨出,并委派专人看护,防止相互间强烈的偶斗,造成损失。 ?



(1)先天性不育,主要因生殖器官发育不良造成,这样的鹿应尽早淘汰。 ?

(2)营养性不育,因疾病或饲养管理差,使母鹿的体况太差,造成胚胎、甚至卵泡不能正常发育,所以不能受孕、或受孕后胎泡消失。这样的鹿可通过疾病的治疗及加强饲养,使其达到中等以上的营养水平,是完全可以繁殖。但对某些患传染病,严重威胁鹿群的,应予以淘汰。 ?

(3)过于近亲繁殖、母鹿年龄过大,或母鹿群太大等原因造成的不育,可针对性的采取措施,以提高鹿的繁殖成活率。 ??



母鹿经过交配,以后不再发情,一般可以认为其受孕了。另外,从外观上可见受孕鹿食欲增加,膘情愈来愈好,毛色光亮,性情变得温顺,行动谨慎、安稳,到翌年3~4月份时,在没进食前见腹部明显增大者可有90%以上的为妊娠。茸鹿的妊娠期长短与茸鹿的种类、胎儿的性别和数量、饲养方式及营养水平等因素有关。梅花鹿平均为2296天,怀公羔的2315天、怀母羔的2286天、怀双胎者2246天,比单胎的短5天左右;各类马鹿的妊娠期基本相同,如东北马鹿2436天、天山马鹿2447天,其中怀公羔的2454天、怀母羔的2415天。 ?


梅花鹿和马鹿的产仔期基本相同,一般在5月初~7月初,产仔旺期在5月25日~6月15日。但是,产仔期也与鹿的年龄、所处的地域或饲养条件等因素有关。预测产仔期的公式主要根据配种日期和妊娠天数推算,通常梅花鹿是受配的月份上减4、日上减13,马鹿月份上减4、日加1即可算出产仔日期。 ?


(2)正常产程经产母鹿0.5~2个小时、初产母鹿3~4个小时。 ?


(1)产仔圈要求清洁,产仔期到来之前要彻底消毒,并垫好干净的褥草。在整个产仔期应每10天进行一次产仔圈消毒。 ?

(2)产仔期要保持安静,谢绝参观。 ?

(3)产仔期要设专人看护,发现难产应及时处理;发现恶癖鹿要及时采取措施,并应密切注视产后仔鹿的各种异常情况,有病的应及时治疗。 ?

(4)产仔哺乳期圈内应设仔鹿保护栏。 ?

(5)应填好产仔记录。 ??


1.在做好种用公、母鹿选择的基础上要做好选配工作?选种和选配是密切关联的,它是不断改善鹿群和整个种、类品质的统一过程的两个相连续的环节,选种时必须根据鹿的外貌、体质、生产性能、品种来源及后代的品质等进行全面鉴定;选配是有意识的按着人们的需要,来提高鹿的品质,所以只有两者兼顾才能提高鹿的总体质量。 ?


在整个母鹿群中成年母鹿应占77.3%、育成母鹿占10.5%、仔母鹿占12.2%,这样的结构对鹿群的正常发展有利,否则就会出现年龄断层和发展失调。 ?


过肥的鹿只因卵胞发育不正常大都空怀,瘦鹿也不能正常发情、排卵,因此对种用鹿应科学合理的饲养。 ?

4.及时合理的淘汰种公、母鹿和后备育成鹿?凡是鹿的生产力很低、不符合育种方向、有恶癖等就应及时淘汰,否则会影响鹿业经济效益和发展。 ?

5.合理安排好配种群的公、母比母鹿数量过大,超过公鹿配种的承受力,会出现“漏情”现象,尤其马鹿,其体大、笨重,承受不了连续配种的负担。所以,母鹿数量多,会造成受胎率低的现象。 ?

6.对妊娠母鹿应加强饲养管理,保持适当的营养水平,不要轻易地变动鹿舍,要避免突然的惊扰及鞭打、棍捶。 ?

7.应做好产仔期的各项工作,以提高仔鹿的成活率。 ?



鹿茸的种类因茸鹿的种类、收茸方式、加工方式或茸形的差异,可分成多种类型与规格。按鹿的种类可分成梅花鹿茸、马鹿茸、白唇鹿茸、水鹿茸等;按茸形,梅花鹿可分三杈茸和二杠茸,马鹿茸可分为莲花茸、三杈茸和四杈茸;按收茸方式可分为锯茸和砍头茸;按加工方式可分为排血茸和带血茸;另外还分头槎茸、再生茸、初角茸(毛挑)等。 ??





8月中旬~9月初,鹿开始进入性活动期,茸皮全部脱落,茸角全部骨化,成为骨质坚硬的角。这个骨质的角或角盘于翌年春季脱落,鹿又开始进入新的生茸周期,就这样周而复始,直至死亡。 ?


收茸的规格和种类应根据鹿的年龄、茸形和茸的生长发育趋势,并结合历年的产量情况及市场需求合理地进行,这是提高茸的产量、质量和产值的重要环节。 ?梅花鹿头锯鹿(2周岁)若收三杈茸产量太低,有的还放不出三杈,所以,除了个别高产品种鹿收三杈茸外,大部分得收二杠茸。二锯鹿(3周岁)大部分应收三杈茸,但对茸体瘦小的应收二杠茸。三锯以上的鹿都应收三杈茸,但对老龄鹿、茸生长能力差的还应收二杠茸。茸的收取时机要根据茸的大小、肥嫩上冲程度及长势来决定,二杠茸,如主干、眉枝较粗大,可适当延长收茸时间。三杈茸,粗大、上冲、茸形正的可放大嘴三杈,适当晚收;细小的三杈茸应及时早收。 ?马鹿2周岁以上的都可收三杈茸,其中,对于粗大、肥嫩、上冲、茸形正的可适当收部分四杈茸。 ?从70年代始,国内外市场只需要梅花鹿的砍头茸,它又分为二杠砍头茸和三杈砍头茸。砍头茸的规格要求:茸形正,二杠砍头茸的茸干重0.25公斤/架左右,三杈砍头茸茸干重0.75公斤/架以上,而且收茸的时间应比锯茸早2天收取为宜。 ??



机械保定设备俗称“吊圈”,它是由附属设备、通道和保定器3部分组成。该设备不仅可用于收茸,还可用其治疗、助产和拨鹿等。目前收茸的机械保定设备有半自动夹板式、抬杆式和吊索式保定器。具体结构在此就不详述了。 ?



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Sichuan Pepper,Pepper Powder,Seasoning Gansu Pepper,Sweetener Food

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