Adding proper amounts of animal and vegetable oils in feed can not only increase the energy level of the feed, but also improve the appearance quality of the pellet feed. The link of fats and oils in feed can be placed before granulation and after granulation; the amount added before granulation generally does not exceed 3% of the production volume, otherwise it will lead to problems such as loose particles after granulation, and it is not suitable for puffed feeds. The production process, but the equipment requirements are low; granulated after the particle feed surface treatment (ie oil spraying), the maximum addition amount can reach 8%, to solve the problem of the impact of added oil on the pellet feed firmness, directly improve The productivity, but also more suitable for the production of extruded feed, but the equipment and the use of higher requirements.
I. Basic structure, basic requirements and working principle of grease spraying
1. Basic structure (figure omitted). There are two main forms of oil spray for pelleted feed: one is for spraying when particles are extruded, and the other is for spraying after particles are classified. However, the requirements of the two forms in the oil supply and electronic control are the same.
Grease sprayer is mainly composed of self-controlled oil storage tank, coarse precision filter, control valve, compressed air, high pressure steam and controller. The leveler, thermostat, heating element and stirrer of the self-controlled oil storage tank are mainly used to heat the oil to 60-80Â°C as quickly as possible to reduce the viscosity of the oil and facilitate flow and material absorption. The rough filter prevents impurities from blocking the oil circuit and allows various valves, gauges, and nozzles to work properly. Compressed air or high-pressure steam is mainly used to atomize grease, so that grease can be sprayed on the material in the form of mist to achieve uniform spraying effect. The spray controller is a key component that automatically adjusts and displays the size of the grease flow, and has functions such as accumulating, missing oil alarms and flow deviation alarms. In addition to the above, the heating and insulation of the oil circuit are also indispensable. It can melt the remaining grease of the pipeline as quickly as possible and keep the oil temperature constant during the use of the system.
2. Basic requirements
(1) Each control element in the pipeline should be able to work reliably. There is no oil leakage or steam leakage on the pipeline.
(2) The working pressure should be guaranteed in the oil and steam roads, generally 0.2 to 0.5Mpa.
(3) The pipeline must be equipped with a rough filter to filter impurities, prevent clogging of the nozzle, and be equipped with a detection device to check the accuracy and reliability of the spray volume.
(4) The oil tank and fuel injection site should be equipped with heating devices. The pipes should be wrapped with thermal insulation materials to prevent the oil from solidifying.
(5) should have a higher degree of automation, so that the amount of oil spray can change according to the sprayer's feeding amount changes, so as to ensure the correctness of the amount of oil sprayed.
(6) The spray rate of the grease sprayer should be set according to the user's needs.
(7) It should be ensured that the width of the mist-like oil sprayed by the nozzle can evenly cover the material flow path and reduce the waste of grease.
3. Working principle When the grease enters the oil storage tank through the coarse filter from the oil pool or oil barrel, the steam heating tube automatically heats up to 60-80Â°C. During this process, the pipeline is also heated to the predetermined temperature (the tank must be equipped with stirring In order to make the entire heating of the oil even and ensure the accuracy of temperature measurement, and the temperature can be adjusted according to the viscosity of the oil). When it is determined that the oil path is free, grease painting can be performed. The oil is sprayed into the solenoid valve through a speed control pump, a check valve, and a fine filter, and is sprayed on the surface of the particles in the form of a mist under the action of compressed air. The spray quantity is sent to the programmable controller for processing through the oval gear flow transmitter, and the speed of the variable speed pump is automatically adjusted and the flow rate is changed so that the actual spray amount reaches a preset value.
Second, the advantages of grease spraying
1. The amount of addition is greatly improved because the oil spray is performed after the granulation, so the proportion of the oil can be increased as much as possible according to the recipe without affecting the firmness of the granules.
2. Reduced cross-contamination The use of post-adding processes reduces the amount of grease remaining on the processing equipment, thereby reducing the risk of cross-contamination.
3. Improve the quality of the feed After the granulation, spray the grease, the physical properties of the feed are improved, the hobby is strong, and the grease has a certain permeability, which can penetrate into the deeper layers of the particles in the subsequent process and transportation process. The dispersion of feed particles and the reduction of dust.
Third, the problem of grease spraying Because of the high freezing point of the oil, if you choose to do after the particles are cooled or when the temperature of the particles is low, it is easy to cause the oil to only wrap on the surface of the particles. In the subsequent packaging, storage and transportation process, the particles There is mutual friction between the feeds and collisions that cause the surface of the particles to peel off, resulting in inadequate nutrient content and distortion of the formula. In addition, the surface layer of feed pellets has a high content of oils and fats, and therefore, it is prone to oxidization and deterioration of quality during use. Therefore, it is necessary to use antioxidants and other methods.
IV. The main factors affecting the quality of oil spray
1. When the oil temperature is too low at the temperature of spraying, the viscosity of the oil will be reduced, fat globule will be formed, and the fluidity and atomization effect will be affected, resulting in uneven spraying.
2. The atomization effect of the nozzle grease and the uniformity during spraying have a direct relationship with the nozzle structure and mounting position.
3. Particle size and flow direction The coefficient of variation of spray uniformity is primarily dependent on the surface area, density, and flow uniformity of the particles. Therefore, the small particle diameter, high density, and uniform vortex movement in the flow are more conducive to the uniform spraying and absorption of grease.
4. Solidity of pellet feed If pellet feed is not very firm, it can easily peel off the outer layer and produce powder during subsequent spraying processes and storage and transportation, resulting in insufficient nutrient composition and distortion of the formula.
5. Control System If the automatic control system for spraying is incomplete or lacks monitoring, waste may occur as a result of special conditions such as oil shortage or logistics changes.
V. Summarizing the surface oil spray technology of pellet feed The surface oil spray technology of pellet feed has more advantages than other additive technologies, and there are also some deficiencies. For example, the ability of feed pellets to absorb oil directly affects the spraying effect; It is inevitable that the fog will adhere to the surface of the equipment and the wall of the equipment when the temperature decreases, resulting in cross-contamination and feed deterioration. However, this problem can be avoided if the equipment structure, feed production process and use are considered.
Many large and medium-sized feed mills abroad have already adopted this technology, and they have gradually recognized and adopted it in China. However, due to the fact that imported equipment is relatively expensive and equipment manufactured by a few domestic manufacturers is not yet perfect, the promotion of this technology is subject to certain restrictions. At present, many domestic feed processing equipment manufacturers are also making efforts to this end, hoping that the technology can be widely used in the near future.
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